Studies using monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated species-specific reactivities with Chlamydia pneumoniae. In this study, further characterization of C. pneumoniae specific monoclonal antibodies TT-205 and RR-402 and description of C. pneumoniae specific antibodies prepared against other isolates are presented. TT-205 and RR-402 were shown to neutralize infectivity. Neutralization in cell culture was specific and enhanced by complement. Attempts to characterize the reactive antigen by immunoblotting, immunoaffinity chromatography and radioimmunoprecipitation were unsuccessful, probably due to difficulties in solubilizing the immunoreactive epitope without denaturing it. Recognition of the determinant by the monoclonal antibodies is labile to physical and chemical treatments suggesting that the reactive epitope is conformational.