The effects of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), and beta-carotene as antioxidants and their cooperative action against the oxidation of lipid in solution, membranes, and lipoproteins have been studied and reviewed. Ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol act as potent, and probably the most important, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants, respectively. They function at their own site individually and furthermore act synergistically. beta-Carotene has lower reactivity toward radicals than does alpha-tocopherol and acts as a weak antioxidant in solution. It is more lipophilic than alpha-tocopherol and is assumed to be present at the interior of membranes or lipoproteins, which enables it to scavenge radicals within the lipophilic compartment more efficiently than does alpha-tocopherol. The cooperative interaction between vitamin C and vitamin E may be quite probable, that of vitamin C and beta-carotene is improbable, whereas that between vitamin E and beta-carotene may be possible.