The interaction of calcium antagonists, including the dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (e.g. nifedipine), verapamil and diltiazem, with drugs from other classes has major clinical ramifications as the use of drug combinations increases in frequency. Combinations are used in the treatment of disorders ranging from hypertension to cardiac rhythm disturbances, angina pectoris and peripheral vasospastic disease. In this era of organ transplantation, drugs like cyclosporin are coming into potential conflict with an ever-growing list of drugs. Drug combinations used as part of long term therapies are also making their appearance in toxic drug reactions, including antituberculous and anticonvulsant agents. Bronchodilators and H2-blockers also fall into this category of potential culprits of combined drug toxicity, and the interactions of calcium antagonists with beta-blockers and antiarrhythmic agents are also becoming a matter of concern.