Neurotherapy for stroke rehabilitation: a single case study

Biofeedback Self Regul. 1995 Sep;20(3):211-28. doi: 10.1007/BF01474514.


A 55-year-old male subject was treated with a two-tiered neurotherapy approach for a period of six months beginning approximately one year after a left-side CVA. Medical evaluation revealed left posterior temporal/parietal infarctions secondary to occlusion of the left internal carotid artery. The patient complained of hesitant speech with word finding difficulty and paraphasia, difficulty focusing his right eye, lack of balance and coordination, poor short-term memory, poor concentration, anxiety, depression, and tinnitus. A quantitative electroencephalograph (QEEG) analysis revealed increased left-side 4-7-Hz activity and alpha persistence on eye opening. Two neurotherapy approaches were used beginning with electroencephalographic entrainment feedback (EEF). This was followed by neurofeedback to inhibit 4-7 Hz and increase 15-21 Hz over sensorimotor and speech areas. At the conclusion of treatment there were significant reductions in slow-wave activity. Improvement was evident in speech fluency, word finding, balance and coordination, attention, and concentration. Depression, anxiety, and tinnitus were greatly reduced.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Biofeedback, Psychology*
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / complications
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / physiopathology
  • Cerebrovascular Disorders / rehabilitation*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Handwriting
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Speech
  • Treatment Outcome