Exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and the risk of malignant diseases--an evaluation of epidemiological and experimental findings

Eur J Cancer Prev. 1995 Sep;4 Suppl 1:3-107. doi: 10.1097/00008469-199509001-00001.


Epidemiological and experimental studies concerning extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure and malignant diseases published up to 1 July 1994 were evaluated to assess the possible carcinogenicity of electromagnetic fields and the scientific basis for environmental and occupational standard setting. We concluded that there are possible associations between (i) an increased risk of leukaemia in children and the existence of, or distance to, power lines in the vicinity of their residence, (ii) an increased risk of chronic lymphatic leukaemia and occupational exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields and (iii) an increased risk of breast cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, nervous system tumours, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, acute lymphatic leukaemia or acute myeloid leukaemia and certain occupations. There is no scientific basis for occupational or environmental standard setting for low frequency electric or magnetic fields.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Electromagnetic Fields / adverse effects*
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Neoplasms / etiology
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects
  • Paternal Exposure
  • Rats
  • Risk Factors