In 82 patients who underwent gastroduodenoscopy, acute and chronic gastric mucosal inflammation was scored for severity, and systemic humoral immune responses to Helicobacter pylori antigens were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. On the basis of culture, gastric histology, and serologic evaluation, 33 patients were classified as H. pylori infected and 36 were classified as uninfected. Thirteen patients had negative cultures and stains but were seropositive and were analyzed separately from the other two groups. Specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses to H. pylori whole-cell antigens and specific IgG responses to the 54-kDa heat shock protein homolog (Hp54K) and vacuolating cytotoxin were significantly greater in infected than in uninfected patients as were specific IgA responses to whole-cell antigens and cytotoxin (P < 0.001). Among the H. pylori-infected persons, serum IgG responses to Hp54K and to the vacuolating cytotoxin were correlated with acute mucosal inflammatory scores. In contrast, serum IgA responses to whole-cell sonicate and to vacuolating cytotoxin were inversely related to chronic inflammatory scores. By multivariant regression analysis, only specific serum IgG responses to Hp54K correlated with severity of inflammation (both acute and chronic; P < 0.001); these responses may be markers of inflammation or these antibodies could play a direct role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-induced inflammation.