Is psychological wellbeing impaired in long-term survivors of breast cancer?

J Med Screen. 1995;2(1):5-9. doi: 10.1177/096914139500200103.


Objective: To measure anxiety and depression in long term survivors of breast cancer.

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: Follow up of the trial of early detection of breast cancer in the South West Surrey Health District.

Subjects: 331 patients with breast cancer aged 50-78, attending mammographic follow up, who had been invited to screening before diagnosis, and 584 controls who had attended the same clinic but did not have breast cancer. The sample included 290 pairs matched by screening attendance pattern and year of birth.

Main outcome measure: Anxiety and depression scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.

Results: Significantly fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression were reported by patients with cancer than by controls and significantly fewer had high scores suggesting the presence of psychological morbidity meriting treatment. Among the patients with cancer anxiety was more common at the first annual follow up than at later visits. Symptom scores were not significantly related to the manner of detection or to the type of initial treatment. Potentially confounding social and personal factors did not account for the differences between patients with cancer and controls.

Conclusion: The prevalence of anxiety and depression is not increased in long term survivors of breast cancer who are apparently free from disease and is not substantially affected by the manner in which a cancer is detected or by the treatment given. In the light of these findings it is difficult to justify large "quality adjustments" to the estimates of recurrence-free years of life saved by screening. Those who counsel patients with breast cancer should be aware that although the initial distress can be severe, meriting psychological treatment, patients do recover their normal ability to enjoy life.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Anxiety / epidemiology*
  • Attitude to Health*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Breast Neoplasms / psychology*
  • Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Mammography
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prevalence
  • Recurrence
  • Socioeconomic Factors