Purpose: Our aim was to prove if alternating chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic instillations improved efficacy and reduced toxicity in patients with carcinoma in situ of the bladder.
Materials and methods: Of 68 carcinoma in situ patients randomly treated with instillations 40 received mitomycin C and 28 received mitomycin C and Pasteur bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in alternating courses. Mean followup was 33 months.
Results: The complete response rates with mitomycin C and mitomycin C/BCG were 45% and 71% at 3 months, 59% and 82% at 12 months, and 47% and 74% at 24 months, respectively (p = 0.041). The disease-free interval showed the superiority of alternating therapy (p = 0.043). Recurrence rates during the instillation period were 1.834 with mitomycin C and 0.922 with mitomycin C/BCG (p = 0.013). No remarkable side effects developed in the alternating group.
Conclusions: Therapy of carcinoma in situ with alternating mitomycin C and BCG is more effective than mitomycin C alone. Compared to BCG monotherapy only few side effects occur.