Albino mutants (Pks-) of Colletotrichum lagenarium form nonmelanized appressoria and possess little penetrating ability on the host plant. The defect in albino mutant 79215 (Pks-) is considered to lie in pentaketide biosynthesis and/or pentaketide cyclization during melanin biosynthesis. The cosmid pAC7, carrying the PKS1 gene, when transformed into the albino mutant restores the wild-type melanin phenotype. We have determine the DNA sequence and the transcriptional organization of the PKS1 gene. The PKS1 gene contains one open reading frame, consisting of 3 exons separated by two short introns. The predicted PKS1 polypeptide consists of 2187 amino acids and shows significant similarities with other polyketide synthases, particularly that encoded by wA in Aspergillus nidulans, involved in conidial pigmentation. The PKS1 gene contains highly conserved beta-ketoacyl synthase, acetyl/malonyl transferase, and acyl carrier protein domains. We propose that the C. lagenarium PKS1 gene encodes a polyketide synthase involved in melanin biosynthesis.