The development of RFLP linkage maps in hexaploid and diploid oat allows us to study genetic relationships of these species at the DNA level. In this report, we present the extension of a previously developed diploid oat map (Avena atlantica x A. hirtula) and its molecular-genetic relationships with wheat, rice and maize. Examination of 92-99% of the length of the oat genome map with probes common to Triticeae species, rice or maize showed that 84, 79 and 71%, respectively, was conserved between these species and oat. Generally, the orders of loci among chromosomes homoelogous to oat chromosomes A and D were the most conserved and those of chromosomes homoeologous to oat chromosome G were the least conserved. Conservation was observed for blocks ranging from whole chromosomes 101 cM long to small segments 2.5 cM long containing two loci. Comparison of the homoeologous segments of Triticeae, rice and maize relative to oat indicated that certain regions have been maintained in all four species. The relative positions of major genes governing traits such as seed storage proteins and resistance to leaf rusts have been conserved between cultivated oat and Triticeae species. Also, the locations of three vernalization/or photoperiod response genes identified in hexaploid oat correspond to the locations of similar genes in homoeologous chromosomes of wheat, rice or maize. The locations of the centromeres for six of the seven oat chromosomes were estimated based on the homoeologous segments between oat and Triticeae chromosomes.