The influence of cigarette yield and length of smoking experience on smoking behaviour and biomarker levels was sought in 108 smokers who have never changed cigarette class. Smoking parameters carboxyhaemoglobin percentage (COHb), urinary nicotine, and its metabolites, mutagens, and thioethers were measured. Cigarette yield does not affect daily consumption or smoke volume puffed per cigarette. But the inhalation depth increases with decreasing cigarette yield and with length of smoking habit. The COHb level after the first cigarette in the morning increases significantly with CO cigarette yield and length of smoking experience. In the evening, only the cigarette yield has an effect on COHb level. Biomarker levels excreted in urine are generally lower for females than for males. They tend to increase with smoking history. Only COHb level and total urinary nicotine metabolites (Barlow index) are weakly correlated with cigarette yield. The absence of significant differences due to cigarette class in urinary biomarkers can be explained by changes in inhalation depth, individual differences of metabolism, and limited specificity of some markers (mutagens, thioethers).