Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Comparative Study
, 118 (3), 379-91

Facial Expressions of Emotion: What Lies Beyond Minimal Universality?

Affiliations
Comparative Study

Facial Expressions of Emotion: What Lies Beyond Minimal Universality?

J A Russell. Psychol Bull.

Abstract

This article discusses the controversy over whether attribution (recognition) of emotions from facial expressions is universal (P. Ekman, 1994; C. E. Izard, 1994; J. A. Russell, 1994). Agreement emerged on various issues. There exists at least Minimal Universality (people everywhere can infer something about others from their facial behavior). Anger, sadness, and other semantic categories for emotion are not pancultural and are not the precise messages conveyed by facial expressions. Emotions can occur without facial expressions, and facial expressions can occur without emotions. Further evidence is needed to determine the relationship between emotion and facial behavior, what determines that relationship, how facial behavior is interpreted, and how much the interpretation varies with culture and language. Ekman's (1994) objections are answered.

Comment on

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 8 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback