Regulation of plasminogen activation, matrix metalloproteinases and urokinase-type plasminogen activator-mediated extracellular matrix degradation in human osteosarcoma cell line MG63 by interleukin-1 alpha

J Bone Miner Res. 1995 Sep;10(9):1374-84. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.5650100915.


Plasmin-mediated extracellular proteolysis has been implicated in the degradation of bone in normal and pathological conditions. Normal and malignant osteoblasts can produce both tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). We have used the osteosarcoma cell line MG63 to address the question of whether the enhanced bone turnover in osteosarcomas is mediated by t-PA or by u-PAA and to study the effect of the cytokine interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), known to influence bone degradation, on the plasminogen activator production and extracellular matrix degradation in malignant osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, the effect of IL-1 alpha on the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) was analyzed. u-PA production by MG63 was high (approximately 180 ng/10(6) cells/24 h). Also t-PA and PAI-1 production was observed. u-PA production was rapidly increased in MG63 by IL-1 alpha (10 ng/ml), whereas an effect on t-PA production was only found after a prolonged incubation and hardly any effect of IL-1 alpha on PAI-1 production was observed. mRNA analysis revealed similar effects. u-PA receptor (u-PAR) mRNA was detectable in MG63 cells and could be increased by IL-1 alpha after 24 h. In MG63, u-PA-mediated extracellular matrix degradation was detectable, and IL-1 alpha increased the u-PA-mediated matrix degradation (approximately 2-fold). Under control conditions in MG63, only MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA could be observed. After the addition of IL-1 alpha, a very rapid increase in MMP-1 and MMP-3 mRNA could be observed as well as a moderate increase in TIMP-1 mRNA. The presence of MMP-2 was demonstrated by gelatin zymography. These results show that IL-1 alpha can stimulate u-PA production and can regulate extracellular proteolytic activity mainly via u-PA induction in the MG63 osteosarcoma cell line. Furthermore, IL-1 alpha has a strong stimulating effect on the production of MMP-1 and MMP-3. These findings suggest that u-PA and possibly MMP-1 and MMP-3 play an important role in the process of bone turnover in osteosarcomas.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1 / pharmacology*
  • Metalloendopeptidases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Metalloendopeptidases / physiology*
  • Osteoblasts / physiology*
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Plasminogen Activators / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Plasminogen Activators / physiology*
  • Plasminogen Inactivators / biosynthesis
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / physiology*


  • Interleukin-1
  • Plasminogen Inactivators
  • Plasminogen Activators
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • Metalloendopeptidases