To determine the correlates of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in 9- and 10-year-old girls, data were examined from 624 Black girls and 773 White girls. Black girls had, on average, 3.6 mg/dL higher levels than White girls. Each 10-mm increase in sum of skinfolds was associated with a decrease of 1.4 mg/dL; each unit increase in the tricep/suprailiac skinfold ratio was associated with an increase of 2 mg/dL; and each 10% increase in polyunsaturated fat intake was associated with an increase of 3.4 mg/dL. The associations of sedentary activity and sexual maturation with HDL were mediated by differences in adiposity. Interventions to decrease adiposity may be important for the primary prevention of heart disease in women.