The ontogeny of allele-specific methylation associated with imprinted genes in the mouse

EMBO J. 1993 Sep;12(9):3669-77.


We have investigated the DNA methylation patterns in genomically imprinted genes of the mouse. Both Igf2 and H19 are associated with clear-cut regions of allele-specific paternal modification in late embryonic and adult tissues. By using a sensitive PCR assay, it was possible to follow the methylation state of individual HpaII sites in these genes through gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Most of these CpG moieties are not differentially modified in the mature gametes and also become totally demethylated in the early embryo in a manner similar to non-imprinted endogenous genes. Thus, the overall allele-specific methylation pattern at these sites must be established later during embryogenesis after the blastula stage. In contrast, sites in an Igf2r gene intron and one CpG residue in the Igf2 upstream region have allele-specific modification patterns which are established either in the gametes or shortly after fertilization and are preserved throughout pre-implantation embryogenesis. These studies suggest that only a few DNA modifications at selective positions in imprinted genes may be candidates for playing a role in the maintenance of parental identity during development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Blastocyst / physiology
  • DNA / metabolism*
  • DNA Primers
  • Deoxyribonuclease HpaII
  • Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific
  • Dinucleoside Phosphates / analysis
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development*
  • Female
  • Fertilization
  • Genes, Regulator
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Methylation
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Morula / physiology
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Spermatozoa / metabolism


  • DNA Primers
  • Dinucleoside Phosphates
  • cytidylyl-3'-5'-guanosine
  • DNA
  • Deoxyribonuclease HpaII
  • Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific