By homologous recombination, we have generated mice that lack the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene. Neuronal NOS expression and NADPH-diaphorase (NDP) staining are absent in the mutant mice. Very low level residual catalytic activity suggests that other enzymes in the brain may generate nitric oxide. The neurons normally expressing NOS appear intact, and the mutant NOS mice are viable, fertile, and without evident histopathological abnormalities in the central nervous system. The most evident effect of disrupting the neuronal NOS gene is the development of grossly enlarged stomachs, with hypertrophy of the pyloric sphincter and the circular muscle layer. This phenotype resembles the human disorder infantile pyloric stenosis, in which gastric outlet obstruction is associated with the lack of NDP neurons in the pylorus.