Eighteen patients, 16 boys and 2 girls, aged 5-14 years, with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were treated with oral isoprinosine (100 mg/kg/day) and intraventricular alpha-interferon 2b (Intron A, Schering Corp.), starting at 500,000 U twice a week and later increasing to 3 million U biweekly. Minimal follow-up of living patients is 12 months; maximal 40 months. On the basis of the Neurological Disability Index (NDI) scores and staging, 8 have treatment-induced remissions (3 improved, 5 arrested), 4 are worse and 6 died. This 44% (8/18) rate of remission/improvement compares well with the 9% (1/11) remission in historical controls in the same institution (p = < 0.05) and 5% spontaneous remission in the literature. Combined oral isoprinosine-intraventricular alpha-interferon appears to be an effective treatment for SSPE.