We examined the biochemical changes and the efficacy of indapamide in the prevention of calcium stone recurrences. Seventy-five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria were randomly assigned to three different therapies: diet and fluid (group A), diet and fluid plus indapamide 2.5 mg/day (group B), and diet and fluid plus indapamide 2.5 mg/day plus allopurinol 300 mg/day (group C). Before treatment and after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of therapy, we evaluated blood pressure, serum and urine risk parameters (including relative supersaturations of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid), stone rate, and the proportion of calculi-free patients. During the 3 years of treatment, urinary calcium greatly decreased in groups B and C, dropping to 50% of the pretreatment values; urinary oxalate also significantly declined in group B (-24%) and group C (-27%). Relative supersaturations of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate decreased to the same extent in groups B and C (about one-half of the pretreatment value), and relative supersaturation of uric acid was particularly reduced in group C (-65% of the pretreatment value). The stone rate improved in all three groups (p < 0.005), but using actuarial analysis in the evaluation of calculi-free patients, indapamide, and indapamide plus allopurinol groups were found to have a significantly more favorable effect than diet and fluid treatment (p < 0.02), without any difference between the two drug groups. Because indapamide has fewer side effects than thiazide diuretics, we conclude that indapamide could be an interesting alternative to thiazides in the prevention of calcium stones in hypercalciuric patients.