The association of serum lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) with inflammation was investigated in a primarily rheumatologic study group (n = 570; 202 males and 368 females) by studying the relationship between serum levels of Lp(a) and a panel of acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT), alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), haptoglobin (HPT), complement components 3 and 4 (C3, C4), prealbumin (PAL), albumin (ALB) and transferrin (TRF)). Lp(a) data were adjusted for age and sex, but not clinical condition as no significant differences in Lp(a) levels were observed, using analysis of variance, among the 15 diagnostic categories in the study group. Univariate analyses revealed significant positive associations between Lp(a) levels and levels of C4, AGP, C3 and HPT. Multivariate analysis revealed that C4 and AGP (in descending order of significance) were significant independent predictors of Lp(a) concentration, together accounting for 2.9% of the variability in Lp(a) concentration in the present study group. The data indicate that confounding effects of an acute phase response should be considered in epidemiologic studies, if a high prevalence of inflammation is suspected.