Cytogenetic deletion maps of hematologic neoplasms: circumstantial evidence for tumor suppressor loci

Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1993 Dec;8(4):205-18. doi: 10.1002/gcc.2870080402.


Research in oncogenetics has led to the identification of two major classes of tumor-associated genes, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. In a wide variety of solid tumor types, mutations of both groups of genes have been implicated in the tumorigenic process. In hematologic neoplasms, on the other hand, most attention has focused on illegitimate activation of oncogenes, e.g., deregulation leading to disturbed transcriptional activity and structural rearrangements resulting in hybrid genes. Whether loss or mutational inactivation of tumor suppressor genes also plays an essential role in the genesis of tumors of the hematopoietic system has received less attention. Because such inactivation can be the result of karyotypically detectable loss of chromosomal material, cytogenetic studies may prove helpful in pinpointing genomic sites that harbor tumor suppressor genes. The present study is based on a total of 12,473 cytogenetically abnormal hematologic neoplasms reported in the literature to date. Among these, we selected the 6,422 cases with sole clonal chromosomal abnormalities in order to include only aberrations of importance in the genesis, rather than in the progression, of these neoplasms. All tumors with monosomies or structural abnormalities resulting in loss of chromosomal material were compiled, and for every such structural aberration, i.e., deletion, unbalanced translocation, isochromosome, and ring chromosome, the chromosome bands lost were ascertained. This cytogenetic deletion mapping revealed that the most commonly lost chromosomes were Y and 7 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPD); X, Y, 7, 20, and 21 in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL); X, Y, and 17 in chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD); and X and Y in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Chromosome segments/bands lost due to unbalanced structural abnormalities in at least 5% of the cases were 5q13-33, 7q22-36, 9q13-31, 11q23-25, 12p12-13, 17p11-13, and 20q11-13 in AML; 5q13-35 and 20q11-13 in MDS; 5q22-23, 7q22, 13q12-22, 17p11-13, and 20q11-13 in MPD; 6q15-27, 9p11-24, 12p12-13, and 19p13 in ALL; 6q16-27, 11q21-25, 13q13-14, and 14q32 in LPD; and 6q21-27, 11q13-25, and 14q24-32 in NHL. Based on these findings, three conclusions can be drawn. First, there is no good correspondence between total and partial monosomies, the only exception being -7 and 7q-, both of which are common in myeloid neoplasms. This indicates different pathogenetic effects of total and partial losses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Chromosome Mapping*
  • Chromosomes, Human / ultrastructure*
  • Genes, Tumor Suppressor*
  • Humans
  • Leukemia / classification
  • Leukemia / genetics*
  • Lymphoma / classification
  • Lymphoma / genetics
  • Lymphoproliferative Disorders / genetics*
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes / genetics*
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders / genetics*
  • Sequence Deletion*