Granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in cord and maternal serum at delivery

Pediatr Res. 1994 Feb;35(2):164-8. doi: 10.1203/00006450-199402000-00007.


Impaired neutrophil responses contribute to the neonate's increased susceptibility to infection. Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhance granulocyte and macrophage number and function, their use in the management of neonatal sepsis may be beneficial. Little is known about the endogenous levels of G-CSF and GM-CSF. In adults, raised values for G-CSF, but not GM-CSF, have been demonstrated in patients with infection, and conflicting data has emerged regarding CSF levels in neonates. We have used an ELISA to measure maternal and cord serum G-CSF and GM-CSF at the time of delivery, with gestational age between 25 and 42 wk. In mothers, an inverse linear relationship between gestational age and GM-CSF levels (p = 0.049) was found, but no association with G-CSF levels was observed. In neonates, a quadratic association was found between GM-CSF levels and gestational age (p = 0.019), whereas G-CSF levels showed an inverse linear association (p = 0.015). In addition, an association was found between maternal and cord GM-CSF (p = 0.007) but not G-CSF levels in paired samples. The effect of gestational age on the cytokine levels could not be explained by the white cell count, the absolute neutrophil count, pregnancy-induced hypertension, or the presence of infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Delivery, Obstetric
  • Female
  • Fetal Blood / metabolism*
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Infections / blood
  • Neutropenia / blood
  • Pregnancy


  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor