Over a decade has passed since the identification of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative agent of AIDS. During this time, HIV has been extensively characterized, and a variety of vaccine constructs and strategies have been explored. For the most part, these have been driven by successes of the past with other pathogens, or by novel approaches enabled by technologies of the present. With the maturing of our insights into the immunopathology of HIV and basic immunological mechanisms, we are presented with unprecedented opportunities to rationally develop vaccine approaches strategically designed to counter the immunopathology of HIV. As opposed to absolute prevention of infection, the primary goal of these strategies may be to limit infection and to assure a response to infection that prevents disease and transmission. Thus, such vaccines may find utility in both preventive and therapeutic roles. In this paper, we present the background and current state of immunobiology-driven vaccine development for AIDS.