Non-specific fluorescent whitener stains in the rapid recognition of pulmonary dirofilariasis: a report of 20 cases

Thorax. 1994 Jun;49(6):590-3. doi: 10.1136/thx.49.6.590.


Background: Solitary lung nodules in humans caused by the dog parasite Dirofilaria immitis are steadily increasing in number. The organisms can be easily missed in haematoxylin and eosin stained tissue when they are degenerated and pale staining.

Methods: The value of Tinopal CBS-X (TCBS-X) and Calcofluor white (CFW), two rapid, inexpensive, simple non-specific fluorescent whitening stains, were assessed in the identification of these worms. Deparaffinised rehydrated tissue slides prepared from the pulmonary nodules were stained for one minute in 1% w/v aqueous solutions of TCBS-X or CFW, counterstained, coverslipped, and viewed with a fluorescent microscope.

Results: The stains demonstrated the intact worm and worm fragments in 20 cases of pulmonary dirofilariasis collected from hospitals in Houston. The filariae and fragments of filariae stained bright green while the background tissue stained red, delineating the internal structures of the worm.

Conclusions: Dirofilariasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of subpleural masses, and non-specific fluorescent whitening stains can help in the rapid recognition of the fragmented organism in cytological or surgical material.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Animals
  • Benzenesulfonates
  • Dirofilaria immitis* / anatomy & histology
  • Dirofilariasis / pathology*
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Humans
  • Lung / parasitology*
  • Lung Diseases, Parasitic / pathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Staining and Labeling / methods*


  • Benzenesulfonates
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Tinopal
  • C.I. Fluorescent Brightening Agent 28