Coordinate regulation of choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and neuropeptide mRNAs by ciliary neurotrophic factor and leukemia inhibitory factor in cultured sympathetic neurons

J Neurochem. 1994 Aug;63(2):429-38. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1994.63020429.x.


The neurotransmitter phenotype switch that occurs in cultures of rat superior cervical ganglion neurons after treatment with leukemia inhibitory factor or ciliary neurotrophic factor is a useful model permitting investigation of the mechanisms of cytokine-mediated differentiation. Recently the actions of leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor have been linked through their interactions with related receptor complexes. Here we compare the effects of these two cytokines on gene expression in sympathetic neuronal cultures and begin to investigate their mechanisms. We report that, as has been shown for leukemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor regulates peptides and classical transmitters in these cultures at the mRNA level. In addition, we find that the induction of substance P mRNA by these cytokines is rapid, dependent on protein synthesis, and occurs in 40-50% of superior cervical ganglion neurons in dissociated culture.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Choline O-Acetyltransferase / biosynthesis*
  • Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor
  • Gene Expression / drug effects*
  • Growth Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Interleukin-6*
  • Kinetics
  • Leukemia Inhibitory Factor
  • Lymphokines / pharmacology*
  • Nerve Growth Factors / pharmacology
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Neurons / drug effects
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Neuropeptides / biosynthesis*
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Rats
  • Somatostatin / biosynthesis
  • Substance P / biosynthesis
  • Superior Cervical Ganglion / metabolism*
  • Time Factors
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / biosynthesis*
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / biosynthesis


  • Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor
  • Growth Inhibitors
  • Interleukin-6
  • Leukemia Inhibitory Factor
  • Lymphokines
  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Neuropeptides
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Substance P
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
  • Somatostatin
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
  • Choline O-Acetyltransferase