Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a T-cell-dependent rat model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that is induced by injection of collagen type II in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Neovascularization within the synovium is a prominent feature of CIA and RA. The novel angiogenesis inhibitor AGM-1470 and the microtubule-stabilizing agent Taxol represent two new classes of agents with specific mechanisms of action. AGM-1470 inhibits fibroblast growth factor-induced stimulation of endothelial cell migration, endothelial cell proliferation, and capillary tube formation, resulting in effective suppression of new blood vessel formation. By enhancing microtubule polymerization, Taxol interferes with normal microtubule function in cell mitosis, migration, chemotaxis, and intracellular transport. Using a suppression protocol in established CIA, the effects of AGM-1470 and Taxol as single agents and in combination were evaluated. Combination therapy significantly reduced clinical arthritis compared to control rats (P < 0.00001). The combination therapy group also experienced earlier and significantly greater reduction of clinical arthritis compared to either single agent-treated groups (P < 0.05). Blinded radiographic scores at the end of the study demonstrated less soft tissue swelling and joint destruction using combination therapy than either single agent. This is the first use of AGM-1470 and Taxol in combination therapy. Further study of agents with distinct mechanisms of action may lead to more effective treatment options in chronic inflammatory arthritis and to a better understanding of the pathophysiologic processes of pannus formation.