We analyzed the 16S ribosomal DNAs of three obligately aerobic, bacteriochlorophyll a-containing bacteria, "Roseococcus thiosulfatophilus," "Erythromicrobium ramosum," and new isolate T4T (T = type strain), which was obtained from a marine cyanobacterial mat. "Roseococcus thiosulfatophilus" is a member of the alpha-1 subclass of the Proteobacteria and is moderately related to Rhodopila globiformis, Thiobacillus acidophilus, and Acidiphilium cryptum (level of sequence similarity, 90%). "Erythromicrobium ramosum" and isolate T4T are closely related to Erythrobacter longus and Porphyrobacter neustonensis (level of sequence similarity, 95%). These organisms are members of the alpha-4 subclass of the Proteobacteria. Strain T4T is a motile, red or orange bacterium. The major carotenoids are bacteriorubixanthinal and erythroxanthin sulfate. In vivo measurements revealed bacteriochlorophyll absorption maxima at 377, 590, 800, and 868 nm. Strain T4T grows in the presence of 5 to 96/1000 salinity and uses glucose, fructose, acetate, pyruvate, glutamate, succinate, and lactate as substrates. On the basis of its distinct phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics which are different from those of Erythrobacter longus, we propose that strain T4T should be placed in a new species of the genus Erythrobacter, Erythrobacter litoralis. The descriptions of "Roseococcus thiosulfatophilus" and "Erythromicrobium ramosum" are emended.