The B7 and CD28 receptor families

Immunol Today. 1994 Jul;15(7):321-31. doi: 10.1016/0167-5699(94)90080-9.


Current evidence suggests that T-cell receptor (TCR) recognition of antigen bound to the major histocompatibility complex (Ag-MHC) is insufficient to lead to T-cell proliferation or effector function. For a helper T cell to produce sufficient interleukin 2 (IL-2) to allow autocrine-driven clonal expansion, there is a requirement for so-called 'co-stimulatory' or 'accessory' signals in addition to TCR ligation by Ag-MHC. The interaction of the CD28 receptor on T cells with B7 on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) supplies one such co-stimulatory signal. However, the recent discovery that CD28 and B7 are each members of larger gene families suggests that the regulation of co-stimulation is more complex than previously imagined. Here, Carl June and colleagues highlight recent advances in the understanding of the CD28 and B7 receptor families.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abatacept
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology
  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation / immunology
  • B7-1 Antigen / genetics
  • B7-1 Antigen / immunology*
  • CD28 Antigens / genetics
  • CD28 Antigens / immunology*
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • Humans
  • Immunoconjugates*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / chemistry
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology
  • Signal Transduction
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*


  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • B7-1 Antigen
  • CD28 Antigens
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • CTLA4 protein, human
  • Immunoconjugates
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • Abatacept
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)