Chlamydia trachomatis L2 is an obligate intracellular microorganism with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellular form, the elementary body (EB), is infectious but metabolically inactive. Attachment of EBs to host cells is medicated by a heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycan. Following attachment, the EB is internalized within a membrane-bound vesicle, and during the first 8 h of infection the vesicles are transported to a perinuclear location where they aggregate and fuse. By use of a monoclonal antibody against phosphotyrosine, we showed that three classes of proteins are tyrosine phosphorylated: a triple band of 68, 66, and 64 kDa, a 97-kDa band, and a 140-kDa band. The phosphorylation could be detected by immunoblotting from 15 min after infection of HeLa cells. We followed the movement of the EBs and the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins by double-labelling immunofluorescence microscopy with the same monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and a polyclonal antibody against the C. trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex. During the first 8 h of infection, the phosphorylation colocalized with EBs. Sixteen hours after infection, EBs have reorganized to the replicating reticulate bodies, forming an inclusion. At this time, phosphorylation was seen as dotted spots in the periphery of the inclusion.