Prostate cancer screening in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial of the National Cancer Institute

J Urol. 1994 Nov;152(5 Pt 2):1905-9. doi: 10.1016/s0022-5347(17)32412-6.


Screening for prostate cancer and subsequent treatment is of unknown benefit but carries known treatment related morbidity and mortality risks. The recent enthusiasm for screening in the United States contrasts sharply with the more cautious attitudes of the European and Canadian medical communities. Current data from screening series without randomization and controls are inadequate to determine screening benefit. The prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer (randomized, controlled) screening trial of the National Cancer Institute, to include 74,000 men (and 74,000 women) 60 to 74 years old, has a design power of 90% to determine a 20% reduction of prostate cancer mortality from a baseline and 3 subsequent annual screens using prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination. Randomization of participants into this trial began on November 16, 1993. Ten screening centers nationwide, a coordinating center, a laboratory and a biorepository are participating under contract.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Mass Screening*
  • Middle Aged
  • National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Physical Examination
  • Pilot Projects
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic*
  • Rectum
  • Research Design
  • Sampling Studies
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Ultrasonography
  • United States


  • Prostate-Specific Antigen