Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1) disease or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I (HMSNI) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy. In most CMT1 families, the disease cosegregates with a 1.5-Mb duplication on chromosome 17p11.2 (CMT1A). A few patients have been found with mutations in the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP-22) gene located in the CMT1A region. In other families mutations have been identified in the major peripheral myelin protein P0 gene localized on chromosome 1q21-q23 (CMT1B). We performed a rapid mutation screening of the PMP-22 and P0 genes in non-duplicated CMT1 patients by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis followed by direct polymerase chain reaction sequencing of genomic DNA. Six new single base changes in the P0 gene were observed: two missense mutations in, respectively, exons 2 and 3, two nonsense mutations in exon 4, and two silent mutations or polymorphisms in, respectively, exons 3 and 6.