Two sets of descending neurons primarily target the somata of neurons in the olfactory deutocerebrum of the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus. Hundreds to thousands of dopamine-like immunoreactive fibers originate in the lateral protocerebrum and terminate among the clustered somata of the olfactory deutocerebrum projection neurons (lateral soma cluster) and those of the olfactory deutocerebrum local interneurons (medial soma cluster). A pair of giant neurons with substance P- and FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity from the median protocerebrum terminate primarily in the lateral soma cluster, but also branch in the core of the olfactory lobe itself. Neurons of both types terminate in numerous bouton-like swellings. The terminals in the lateral cluster at least contain numerous, large, dense-core and small, clear vesicles. The terminals contact the somata and the primary neurites through both traditional chemical synapses and large zones of direct membrane appositions. In most instances, a vesicle-containing profile forms a triadic arrangement with a neurite and a soma the latter being frequently connected via large gap-junction-like structures. Rosette-like arrangements formed by a vesicle-containing profile surrounded by up to eight neurites are also common. Dissociated lateral cluster somata support both fast inward and sustained outward voltage-activated currents. Substance P, but not dopamine or FMRFamide-related peptides, alters the fast inward current. The somata of the olfactory projection neurons, and possibly those of the olfactory local interneurons, appear to serve an integrative, and not merely a supportive role in these invertebrate central neurons.