Immunohistochemical expression of PRAD1/cyclin D1 protein has been investigated in 106 tissue specimens of 104 cases of lymphoma, non-neoplastic lymphoid disorders and other hematologic malignancies by employing the monoclonal antibody 5D4 with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections, using the microwave oven heating method. Positive neoplastic cells were found in 60 (74%) of 81 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The positivity pattern was nuclear in 17 (85%) of 20 cases of mantle cell lymphoma in which cytoplasmic staining was also seen. This pattern of cyclin D1 positivity was in contrast to the negative staining of normal reactive mantle zones. In the other cases, positivity appeared to lie within the cell cytoplasm without nuclear staining, and most of the nodal follicular and diffuse B-cell lymphomas variously expressed PRAD1/cyclin D1. In contrast, the reaction was absent in a significant number of T-cell and extranodal B-cell lymphomas. Immunolocalization of PRAD1/cyclin D1 expression appears to be a useful diagnostic adjunct to discriminate mantle cell lymphoma from other non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.