Enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in murine macrophages and glomerular mesangial cells by elevated glucose levels: possible mediation via protein kinase C

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Feb 6;207(1):80-8. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1995.1156.


Increased blood flow and vascular permeability of early diabetes have been associated with increased nitric oxide formation in diabetic rats, but the specific nitric oxide synthase responsible is unknown. We examined the modulation of the induction and activity of the inducible NOS isoform by high glucose concentration in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, and murine glomerular mesangial cells. Culturing both cell types in high glucose concentration led to significant increases in nitrite production and the mRNA encoding iNOS upon stimulation with LPS plus interferon-gamma, as compared with normal glucose concentration. High glucose also modestly enhanced LPS/IFN-gamma-induced stimulation of the iNOS promoter in transient transfection experiments in mesangial cells. Protein kinase C activation led to enhanced mRNA expression of iNOS, and inhibitors of protein kinase C blocked nitrite accumulation in mesangial cells. These findings suggest that high glucose in combination with stimulation by LPS plus IFN-gamma enhances iNOS expression, and protein kinase C activation may be playing a role in this enhancement.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases / biosynthesis*
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Cell Line
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase / biosynthesis
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Enzyme Induction
  • Gene Expression* / drug effects
  • Glomerular Mesangium / drug effects
  • Glomerular Mesangium / enzymology*
  • Glucose / pharmacology*
  • Interferon-gamma / pharmacology
  • Isoenzymes / biosynthesis*
  • Kinetics
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / enzymology*
  • Mannitol / pharmacology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred Strains
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Nitrites / metabolism
  • Nitrogen Dioxide / metabolism
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism*
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Transfection


  • Isoenzymes
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Nitrites
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Mannitol
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Amino Acid Oxidoreductases
  • Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Glucose
  • Nitrogen Dioxide