Objective: This study evaluates small-bore catheter thoracostomy combined with doxycycline sclerotherapy for palliative treatment of presumed malignant pleural effusions.
Subjects and methods: Forty-seven consecutive patients referred from the medical oncology department to the thoracic radiology section with known primary malignant tumors and symptomatic pleural effusions over a 2-year period were treated with small-bore pleural catheter drainage followed by doxycycline sclerotherapy. Of the 47 patients, 20 (43%) died less than 30 days after sclerotherapy, one (2%) died without radiographic follow-up, and five (11%) were lost to follow-up. Twenty-one patients formed the study group. Response to treatment was defined based on findings on follow-up chest radiographs obtained 30 days after sclerotherapy as complete (no reaccumulation of pleural effusion), partial (accumulation above postpleurodesis level but below that at presentation), or as a failure (reaccumulation to the amount seen at presentation).
Results: Seventeen (81%) evaluable patients showed complete response to sclerotherapy, three (14%) showed a partial response, and one (5%) showed no response. All complete and partial responders were clinically improved with resolution of their shortness of breath. Therefore, 95% of evaluable patients had clinically and radiographically successful treatment. Six patients underwent sclerotherapy when their tube output was greater than 100 ml/24 hr. Five of the six had completely successful pleurodesis, and one failed to respond. Two (10%) of the 21 patients had greater than 150 ml drainage in the 24 hr after initial doxycycline administration and were therefore given a second dose of intrapleural doxycycline. Both of these patients subsequently had less than 150 ml drainage in an additional 24-hr observation period and went on to complete response. Complications included three patients (14%) with mild discomfort at the chest tube site during drainage, one patient (5%) with pain during instillation of doxycycline, and one patient (5%) with transient fever (38.3 degrees C body temperature) one day after sclerotherapy.
Conclusion: Small-bore catheter thoracostomy followed by doxycycline sclerotherapy successfully resolves symptomatic pleural effusion in patients with known primary malignant tumors.