Tetrasomy 21 pter-->q22.1 and Down syndrome: molecular definition of the region

Am J Med Genet. 1994 Dec 1;53(4):359-65. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320530411.


Down syndrome is usually caused by complete trisomy 21. Rarely, it is due to partial trisomy of the segment 21q22. We report on a 33-month-old girl with tetrasomy 21 pter-->q22.1 resulting from an extra chromosome idic(21)(q22.1). She has craniofacial traits typical of Down syndrome, including brachycephaly, third fontanel, upward slanting palpebral fissures, round face, and protruding tongue. Speech development is quite delayed whereas motor development is only mildly retarded. The molecular content of the extra isodicentric chromosome was defined by molecular genetic investigations using 13 single copy probes unique to chromosome 21, and SOD1 expression studies. The child was found to have 4 copies of the region defined by D21S16 (21cen) through D21S93 on 21q22.1 and two copies of the remaining region defined by SOD1-->D21S55-->D21S123. In view of the recent assignment of Down syndrome facial characters to the 21q22 region, defined in part by D21S55, it is significant that this child shows a subset of Down syndrome facial manifestations, without duplication of this region. These results suggest that genes contributing to the facial and some of the hand manifestations of Down syndrome also exist in the chromosomal region proximal to D21S55 in band 21q22.1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Blotting, Southern
  • Child Behavior Disorders / genetics
  • Child, Preschool
  • Chromosome Aberrations*
  • Chromosome Disorders*
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21*
  • Developmental Disabilities / genetics
  • Down Syndrome / genetics*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Superoxide Dismutase / blood


  • Superoxide Dismutase