Structural similarity between viral T cell epitopes and self-peptides could lead to the induction of an autoaggressive T cell response. Based on the structural requirements for both MHC class II binding and TCR recognition of an immunodominant myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide, criteria for a data base search were developed in which the degeneracy of amino acid side chains required for MHC class II binding and the conservation of those required for T cell activation were considered. A panel of 129 peptides that matched the molecular mimicry motif was tested on seven MBP-specific T cell clones from multiple sclerosis patients. Seven viral and one bacterial peptide efficiently activated three of these clones. Only one peptide could have been identified as a molecular mimic by sequence alignment. The observation that a single T cell receptor can recognize quite distinct but structurally related peptides from multiple pathogens has important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.