In a previous study the authors reported the characterization of some facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-sporeforming rods which were found in mixed cultures from various infectious processes, including patients with otitis, empyema, perianal abscesses and decubitus ulcers. Phenotypically these organisms closely resembled Actinomyces pyogenes although their precise taxonomic position remained unknown. In the present investigation the authors have determined the 16S rRNA gene sequences of some representative strains of the Actinomyces pyogenes-like bacteria and report the results of a comparative sequence analysis. On the basis of the results of the present and earlier findings two new Actinomyces species, Actinomyces radingae sp. nov. and Actinomyces turicensis sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are DSM 9169T and DSM 9168T, respectively.