Studies were conducted in experimental allergic neuritis (EAN) to evaluate the possible interaction of cellular and humoral immune mechanisms in the demyelinating process. EAN was induced in Lewis rats by passive transfer of T cells reactive to P2 myelin protein or by active immunisation with whole myelin. Animals were then given systemic antimyelin antibody or control serum and assessed clinically, electrophysiologically and with semiquantitative histological studies. Animals given intraperitoneal (i.p.) P2-reactive T cells and systemic antimyelin antibody developed much more severe disease than those given i.p. T cells alone (P < 0.001). In actively immunised animals, the addition of systemic antimyelin antibody did not significantly alter disease severity. We believe the more severe disease in animals receiving T cells and antimyelin antibody reflects synergy between cellular and humoral immune mechanisms whereby neural antigen-specific T cells breach the blood-nerve barrier, allowing demyelinating antibody access to the endoneurium. In EAN induced by active immunisation with whole myelin it is likely that both B and T cell activation occurs and that the more severe demyelination characteristic of this disease reflects the involvement of both humoral and cellular immunity.