The effect of theanine, one of the components of green tea, on the blood pressure and brain 5-hydroxyindoles in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) was investigated by intraperitoneally administering theanine. The effect of glutamine, which is structurally similar to theanine, was also examined. When SHR were injected with various amounts of theanine (0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg), the change was dose-dependent, and a significant decrease in blood pressure was observed with the high doses (1500 and 2000 mg/kg). A dose of 2000 mg/kg of theanine did not alter the blood pressure of WKY, while the same dose to SHR decreased it significantly. On the other hand, glutamine administration to SHR did not change either the blood pressure or the heart rate. The brain 5-hydroxyindole level was significantly decreased by theanine administration to both WKY and SHR, the decrease being dose-dependent.