ImmunoMax. A maximized immunohistochemical method for the retrieval and enhancement of hidden antigens

Lab Invest. 1995 Jul;73(1):149-56.


Background: Since the introduction of mAb, immunohistochemistry has become an important tool in research and in surgical pathology. The most widely used fixative in routine histopathology is formaldehyde, and it has become the gold standard for morphologic tissue preservation. Although the molecular mechanism underlying the tissue fixation is not well understood, it has become clear that available immunoreactive Ag are progressively lost during the fixation process. For a long time, it was thought that formalin-sensitive Ag might be irreversibly destroyed during the fixation process. Although monoclonal anti-Ig Ab frequently worked inadequately, polyclonal anti-Ig Ab were shown to produce reproducible staining results. It thus appeared possible that most cellular Ag might not be irreversibly destroyed but only masked.

Experimental design: Although some Ag may be retrieved under appropriate conditions, there might still be many for which available antigenic epitopes are still too sparse to be visualized, as observed for a large number of leukocyte differentiation Ag. One reliable approach to resolve this dilemma is the use of a combination of an optimized Ag retrieval system and a powerful immunohistochemical staining protocol introducing a biotin amplification step, in which signal amplification is accomplished by covalent deposition of biotin molecules.

Results: Cryostat and paraffin sections were stained with the avidin-biotin complex technique and, for comparison, with the new maximized immunohistochemical staining protocol, termed the ImmunoMax method. Each step was monitored to establish how effectively it enhanced the overall sensitivity. Although pretreatment with detergent, protease, a chaotropic substance, or microwave heating resulted in only moderately improved immunostaining, the biotinylated tyramine enhancement step proved to be the most efficient one, although the latter is not sufficient for many Ag when used without pretreatment steps. The combination of an Ag retrieval step with the biotinylated tyramine enhancement step resulted in a 100 to 10,000-fold boost in sensitivity without loss of specificity.

Conclusions: With the ImmunoMax method, defined Ag can be reproducibly detected in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, and the sensitivity of the method is tremendously enhanced. Moreover, it also allows many previously unreactive or unsatisfactorily reactive Ag to be detected, as shown here for IgD, IgM, and CD7 with the use of mAb.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antigens / analysis*
  • Antigens, CD / analysis
  • Antigens, CD7
  • Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / analysis
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin D / analysis
  • Immunoglobulin M / analysis
  • Immunohistochemistry / methods*


  • Antigens
  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, CD7
  • Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
  • Immunoglobulin D
  • Immunoglobulin M