TraT protein, known as ISCAR (= Immunostimulatory Carrier), is one of a family of integral membrane proteins (Imps) of Escherichia coli representing powerful carrier molecules which when injected into experimental animals generate substantial antibody and T proliferative responses to molecules conjugated to it. We extend these findings to show that ISCAR functions to stimulate Th1- and Th2-type responses, including specific cytotoxic T cells and tumour protection. We report here that by conjugating to ISCAR a 19mer peptide containing linear B epitopes, a T helper (Th) epitope, and a H-2b-restricted T cytotoxic (CTL) epitope of E7 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), and immunizing C57B1/6 (H-2b) mice, we elicited (i) specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies; (ii) IL-2 and IL-4 production by specifically recalled lymph node cells in vitro; (iii) cytotoxic T lymphocytes which specifically killed both E7 peptide-pulsed, and whole E7 gene-transfected tumour target cells; and (iv) in vivo protection against an E7 gene-transfected tumour cell inoculum. These findings have implications for the design of vaccines to stimulate immune responses to endogenously processed target antigens (e.g. tumour-associated antigens) without the unwanted side effects of oil-based adjuvants. In addition they support the case for a E7-targeted therapeutic vaccine for HPV-associated human cervical cancer.