The thermodynamic parameters (delta H degree, delta S degree, and delta G degree 37) for 16 nearest-neighbor sets and one initiation factor are presented here in order to predict stability of RNA/DNA hybrid duplexes. To determine the nearest-neighbor parameters, thermodynamics for 68 different hybrid sequences (136 single-stranded oligonucleotides) with 5-13 nucleotide length including several duplexes with identical nearest-neighbors were measured by UV melting procedure. These sequences were selected to have many different combinations of nearest-neighbor pairs, and so that the number of the 16 nearest-neighbor sequences in the oligomers were as equal as possible. The structures of the hybrids were also investigated by measuring circular dichroism spectra. Comparing delta G degree 37 values of the hybrids with DNA/DNA and RNA/RNA parameters reported previously (Breslauer, K.J., Frank, R., Blöcker, H., & Marky, L.A. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 3746-3750; Freier, S.M., Kierzek, R., Jaeger, J.A., Sugimoto, N., Caruthers, M.H., Neilson, T., & Turner, D.H. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 9373-9377), RNA/RNA double helix is the most stable of the three kinds of helixes with the same nearest-neighbor sequences. Which is more stable between DNA/DNA and RNA/DNA hybrid duplexes depends on its sequence. Calculated thermodynamic values of hybrid formation with the present parameters reproduce the experimental values within reasonable errors.