Th1 and Th2 subsets: paradigms lost?

Immunol Today. 1995 Aug;16(8):374-9. doi: 10.1016/0167-5699(95)80004-2.


The T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 model has provided a valuable framework to investigate and explain many immune reactions and now pervades current thinking on the regulatory role of T cells. However, individual T cells and clones display remarkable diversity in their cytokine profiles, collectively forming a continuous spectrum in which Th1 and Th2 cells may be only two of the possible extreme phenotypes. For these reasons, Anne Kelso argues that cytokine-producing T cells cannot be classified into discrete subsets.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Clone Cells / metabolism
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Immunization
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred DBA
  • Models, Immunological*
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets*
  • Th1 Cells / immunology*
  • Th1 Cells / metabolism
  • Th2 Cells / immunology*
  • Th2 Cells / metabolism


  • Cytokines