T cell independent antigens

Curr Opin Immunol. 1995 Jun;7(3):349-54. doi: 10.1016/0952-7915(95)80109-x.


T cell independent antigens type 2 (TI-2), which are represented predominantly by polysaccharide antigens, stimulate humoral antibody responses in the absence of T-cell help. We and others have recently reported that natural killer cells and/or natural killer cell derived lymphokines may provide a form of 'help' that is necessary for the induction and maintenance of TI-2 responses. Two natural killer cell derived lymphokines, interferon-gamma and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, show synergistic stimulatory activity in inducing Ig secretion in B cells stimulated by a multivalent ligand that mimics TI-2 antigens. The recent finding that natural killer cells have receptors for various classes of polysaccharides supports a role for these cells in regulating responses to TI-2 antigens.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Differentiation / immunology
  • Antigens, T-Independent / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • B-Lymphocytes / physiology
  • Cell Differentiation / immunology
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin Class Switching / immunology
  • Killer Cells, Natural / immunology
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology


  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • Antigens, T-Independent
  • Cytokines