PIP: An increasing incidence of tuberculosis has been recorded in areas where both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are prevalent. 98% of HIV-associated tuberculosis cases occur in developing countries, most notably sub-Saharan Africa. This trend has led to the consideration of tuberculosis prevention therapy for HIV-infected patients. The efficacy of isoniazid for this purpose has been demonstrated in numerous clinical trials, but its application has been limited by concerns about hepatotoxicity, non-adherence, drug resistance, and costs. Recommended is the approach adopted in the US of providing a six-month course of isoniazid to those with a positive tuberculin skin test reaction and epidemiologic risk factors; for those already infected with HIV, 12 months of treatment is suggested. Rifampicin preventive therapy is recommended for those infected by isoniazid-resistant bacilli. Needed are studies to assess operational feasibility, cost-benefits, the use of life-long isoniazid preventive therapy in areas of high tuberculosis transmission, and alternative regimens such as short-course multidrug treatment.