Small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences were determined for 17 strains belonging to the genera Alteromonas, Shewanella, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas, and these sequences were analyzed by phylogenetic methods. The resulting data confirmed the existence of the genera Shewanella and Moritella, but suggested that the genus Alteromonas should be split into two genera. We propose that a new genus, the genus Pseudoalteromonas, should be created to accommodate 11 species that were previously Alteromonas species, including Pseudoalteromonas atlantica comb. nov., Pseudoalteromonas aurantia comb. nov., Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovoa comb. nov., Pseudoalteromonas citrea comb. nov., Pseudoalteromonas denitrificans comb. nov., Pseudoalteromonas espejiana comb. nov., Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis comb. nov. (with two subspecies, Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis subsp. haloplanktis comb. nov. and Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis subsp. tetraodonis comb. nov.), Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea comb. nov., Pseudoalteromonas nigrifaciens comb. nov., Pseudoalteromonas rubra comb. nov., and Pseudoalteromonas undina comb, nov., and one species that previously was placed in the genus Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida comb. nov. We propose that P. haloplanktis (type strain, ATCC 14393) should be the type species of the genus Pseudoalteromonas. At this time the emended genus Alteromonas is restricted to a single species, Alteromonas macleodii.