Although essential fatty acids (EFA) and their longer chain, more unsaturated derivatives play a major role during pregnancy, hardly any information is available with respect to the course of the maternal EFA status during an uncomplicated pregnancy and its relationship to the neonatal EFA status. Therefore, a longitudinal study was started in which 110 pregnant women gave repeated blood samples from the 10th week of gestation until delivery. After birth a blood sample from the umbilical vein and a maternal venous blood sample were collected as well, and 6 months after delivery a final blood sample from the mother was taken. The absolute (mg/l) and relative (% total fatty acids) amounts of the fatty acids in plasma phospholipids were determined. The total amounts of fatty acids increased significantly during pregnancy. This pattern was similar for the individual fatty acids and fatty acid families. The relative amount of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) did not change during pregnancy, whereas the relative amount of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) decreased. Despite maternal mobilization of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), suggested by a temporary increase in the DHA status until 18 weeks gestation, the DHA status steadily declined thereafter. This pattern was associated with a progressive increase in the DHA deficiency index in maternal blood throughout pregnancy and resulted in a sub-optimal neonatal DHA status. The overall maternal EFA status also declined steadily during pregnancy. Therefore, the question arises whether the mother, under the prevailing dietary conditions, is able to meet the high fetal requirement for EFA.