To evaluate dipstick urinalysis as a predictor of subsequent kidney and urinary tract disorders in apparently healthy adults, we designed a cross-sectional, prospective, and retrospective study within a cohort. The severity of proteinuria was significantly (p < 0.01) associated with the amount of pathological casts, whereas hematuria without proteinuria was not. The frequency of subsequent serum creatinine increase (0.3 mg/dl/5 years or more) was significantly enhanced (from 0.4% to 7.3% along with the severity of proteinuria, whereas it was not related to the severity of hematuria. Patients who subsequently developed renal failure and glomerulonephritis exhibited hematuria (11.1-32.1%) less frequent than proteinuria (62.3-83.3%). Even those with renal tumors or stones showed infrequent (14.3-27.9%) hematuria. Thus, urine protein and occult blood have different implications in mass screening.