Regulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 3 expression

Stem Cells. 1995 Jul;13(4):324-35. doi: 10.1002/stem.5530130402.


Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) are multilineage acting hematopoietic growth factors which have overlapping but distinct biological properties. Cellular sources of IL-3 are confined to activated T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, mast cells and possibly megakaryocytes, while these cells and activated macrophages, fibroblasts and endothelial cells are important sources of GM-CSF. In vitro studies have implicated both cytokines in the autocrine growth of human myeloid or murine mast cell leukemias. The human GM-CSF and IL-3 genes map to the long arm of chromosome 5, show similar genomic structures, and share several conserved elements in their 5' and 3' flanking regions. The promoters of these genes contain a variety of positive and negative regulatory regions, and the level of expression of these genes is controlled by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • DNA / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-3 / genetics*
  • Leukemia / immunology
  • Mast Cells / immunology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Interleukin-3
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • DNA