Acp26Aa is a Drosophila seminal fluid protein that plays a role in the elevation of egg-laying by the mated female and has structural features of a prohormone. The protein, which has a region of sequence similarity to the egg-laying hormone of Aplysia, is transferred to the Drosophila female during mating. Acp26Aa is processed in the mated female's genital tract. We show here that the processing involves sequential proteolytic cleavages, and we map the position of these cleavages. Although Acp26Aa is not cleaved in the male, its processing in the mated female requires activities donated by the male. Acp26Aa ectopically expressed in unmated females is not processed. Processing of Acp26Aa in wild-type females mated to males with altered seminal fluid is dependent on the presence and amount of male accessory gland secretions. The need for molecular cooperation between the sexes for processing of Acp26Aa could restrict its activity to the mated female.